Ingress Protection

To prevent dangerous situations, electrical equipment needs to be protection against touching and water. As some items need better protection then others, each equipment will have an Ingress Protection value denoted as IPxy.

The x standands for the protection agains solid objects including dust. This table indicates the protection and size

IP First number – Protection against solid objects

  • 0 – No special protection
  • 1 – Protected against solid objects up to 50 mm, e.g. accidental touch by persons hands.
  • 2 – Protected against solid objects up to 12 mm, e.g. persons fingers.
  • 3 – Protected against solid objects over 2.5 mm (tools and wires).
  • 4 – Protected against solid objects over 1 mm (tools, wires, and small wires).
  • 5 – Protected against dust limited ingress (no harmful deposit).
  • 6 – Totally protected against dust.

The y stands for the level of protection against water.

IP Second number – Protection against liquids

  • 0 – No protection.
  • 1 – Protection against vertically falling drops of water e.g. condensation.
  • 2 – Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15o from the vertical.
  • 3 – Protected against direct sprays of water up to 60o from the vertical.
  • 4 – Protection against water sprayed from all directions – limited ingress permitted.
  • 5 – Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions – limited ingress.
  • 6 – Protected against temporary flooding of water, e.g. for use on ship decks – limited ingress permitted.
  • 69K – Protected against ingress of high temperature (steam)/high pressure water.
  • 7 – Protected against the effect of immersion between 15 cm and 1 m.
  • 8 – Protects against long periods of immersion under pressure.


equipment to be installed on a dinrail has normally a IP20 protection. It is protected against touching by fingers but has no protection against water.

A common protection is IP44. Enclosures that offer IP 44 protection can be used outdoors. Still care needs to be taken as it is certainly not “water proof”. IP 55 can have more water without it will be damaged but if it can be submerged in water, it needs to have an IP67 protection.